1 SEMMELWEIS UNIVERSITY DOCTORATE SCHOOL Doctorate School of Education and Sport Science (Sport and Social Studies) Consultant: Prof. Dr. Rigler Endre University professor and director of institution MOVEMENT EXAMINATIONS ON THE EXAMPLE OF MOVEMENT CONSISTENCY AND PERFORMANCE CONSTANCY Doctoral (PhD) thesis Written by: Müller Anetta BUDAPEST 2004.
2 1. INTRODUCTION There are century long traditions of the observations focusing on human movement. Ever since we became the most developed species of nature through phylogenesis, we have always been interested in movement patterns and length that we are capable of performing or may, during our life become capable of doing. It is an interesting process to study the complexity of acquired movements and the retention of movement based on memorisation and fixing. Our natural movements (those that we become capable of doing through ontogenesis) as well as the acquired or created movements (the ones that we become capable of doing through special somatic and conditioning learning processes) develop in a special way in the learning process. The question when the process of movement acquisition can indeed be judged to be successful and completed is obvious in the world of physical education and in the world of sport but in the course of school education it arises when marking performance in P.E. lessons. Evident as the problem might seem, several questions need to be answered. For example: Is it enough to show the movement? How do we know the movement just performed and seen exactly covers what we asked for or what was required? Is a single attempt enough or only several repetitions can signal the ability of movement? How much are we able to reproduce the movement in the same way, repeat it several times? Which of the variations can be considered good or standard? Is it enough to perform the movement or is it part of a further aim? Which of the aims is more important, in terms of judging successful performance, than the actual performance? (We should think of jumping and throwing events, or movements performed with a ball where the conquered distance or the trajectory and impact of the ball qualifies the form of movement that preceded it.) Which component of movement can be a sufficient basis for analysis and description? (The question is especially interesting if we wish to obtain information fairly quickly without having special equipment or devices. We might consider that among school circumstances and often during the training of top athletes too, our decisions are not directly helped by information obtained by technical devices.) Putting it in another way, in the course of analysing the development of movement, even today, we often have to fall back on our own observations and decisions. In our view, in the classic process of movement acquisition it is the level of automation, then the acquisition of dynamic stereotype that as key factors guide our observations. We believe that through reliable movement reproduction, the consistency of successful performance can serve as a basis to assess the level of learning or more precisely acquisition. 2. THE OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH Aim of research: By an overview of the specialised literature, reveal the factors that influence the consistency of performance and the accuracy of movement. These are factors that can be analysed through works focusing on possibilities of improving performance and educational methodology in the course of the somatic, physical, motor development of the different age groups. By creating an own research methodology contributing to improving the methodology of performance consistency examinations. My final aim is to help, through my research results, the work of colleagues working in sport and physical education in the process of movement teaching, checking and assessment.
3 3. MATERIAL AND METHOD In the theoretical overview our method was to create an independent chapter for specialist literature on the subject of movement precision and performance consistency. Also we listed the special antecedents of the research for the different result areas (static and dynamic balance, accuracy of throwing, serial throws, time estimation) hence literature is not only an independent chapter, it appears in many places in the paper. The independent chapter of special bibliography - compiled in a critical and comparing manner based on Hungarian and foreign publications - is categorised by topics. Human biology oriented examinations: in which research focusing on emphasising the role of inheritance, movement development, environmental factors and way of life in motor performance. Possibilities of improving performance: these works focus on defining and examining movement, movement precision and reproduction, the role of assessment, selection and psychological background from the point of view of judging movement constancy and precision. Educational and methodological research that contributed to the optimisation of movement teaching is covered along the following areas: structure development of specialist material, content of syllabus, syllabus theory research, criteria system of school maturity, definition of learning and the influencing factors, pedagogical aspects of movement learning, learning theory connected with action learning, process and factors of movement education. 4. HYPOTHESES 4.1. We suppose that those whose constancy of movement reproduction is at a higher level can perform better in innerly guided situations requiring closed movement ability that those whose constancy is lower In open movement ability processes (ball games and situations requiring ball skills) the level of performance is not significantly influenced by a high level movement reproduction. 5. QUESTIONS We followed the methodology used in the special bibliography in connection with questions. Questions that arise in different examinations are discussed in the main chapter of the paper. Those questions that concern details of the special examinations were asked in connection with the particular examination. We wanted to answer the following questions: How does accuracy of movement change (boys and girls) according to age and background while performing different movements? Do the complexity and difficulty of movement influence movement deformity or mistakes? 6. AREA OF SURVEY To justify our hypotheses and answer our questions the examination of movement precision was done in the different task areas bellow:
4 Survey: Based on time estimation Based on stability of balance Based on walking Upper and lower limbs Siding ACQUIRED MOVEMENTS Based on hopping Based on target accuracy Question of background Based on hitting fix and changing target surfaces Based on serial throws and jumps 1. chart Surveyed qualities and situations: Measuring static balance in different age group samples:? Examining the keeping of static position in connection with standing position (standing on left and right feet) Trials to measure dynamic balance based on the steadiness of walking and hopping? Examination of walking in different directions (forward and backward)? Examination of walking without visual control? Moving by hopping (right and left foot) Examinations of movement reproduction on natural movements:? examination of serial jumps based on movement execution and performance? examination of serial throws based on movement execution and performance Examinations of target accuracy Trials to examine the ability of targeting and target accuracy on the upper limbs (left and right hand):? targeted throw at a vertical standing target? targeted throw at a moving target coming from different directions (left, right) Trials to examine the ability of targeting and target accuracy on the lower limbs (left and right hand):? targeted kicks at a standing target surface? targeted kicks at lying target surface
5 Change in target accuracy caused by physical strain:? Targeted throws and kicks before and after a training effect Time estimation as a criterion of movement accuracy:? Estimating predetermined time lengths, marking the percentage of over and under estimation? Measuring time lengths chosen by the student, marking possible mistakes
6 Based on execution Based on result reproduction Safe keeping of a relaxed (standing) position (siding, body area, mistake type Walking test (siding, type and size of mistake, number of steps) Hopping tests (siding, type and size of mistake, number of jumps ) MOVEMENT PRECISION Safe keeping of a relaxed (standing) position (number of mistakes, success percentage) Walking tests (time of completion) Hopping tests (time of completion) Serial jumps (length, average, standard deviation, precision index of the jups) Serial throws (length, average, standard deviation, precision index of the throws) Targeting tests Siding (Hits by lef/right hand throws and left/right foot kicks) Upper-lower limbs (on target hits and kicks) Change in the size of targat surface (hits on vertical-horizontal, standing-lying, standingmoving targets) Background of stu (not trained and in the trial task not trained on target hits) 2. chart Time estimation (estimaton of predetermined and voluntarily chosen time lengths based on precision of time estimation and the length of time) Following a careful and complex compilation of research methodology the next step was the survey and data collection.
7 7. SAMPLING AND PROCESSING THE DATA The movement examinations mentioned in the special bibliography all influenced our opinion in designing the series of surveys. Most of the authors noted that the results are largely environment dependent. In other words if we use participants from different locations, their performance will be influenced not only by their individual qualities and maturity but also by the stimuli of their close school and family environment, their everyday routine, and lifestyle. Therefore we wanted to minimise the disturbing factors of the environment and chose a small village as a focus of our examinations. Our surveys were carried out in Tiszaörs, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County, in the Közép-Tisza region. The exact location was the primary school of this 700 years old village, which has a population of This is an educational institution where kindergarten and primary school children learn in the same organisational unit. (ÁMSZK) There are 160 children in the school. Participants were chosen from among them. The number of participants is noted separately at each examination. In chapters where we were also interested in qualities characteristic in age groups after primary school, the sample characteristics were separately discussed. The data was partly processed by simple statistical methods (average, standard deviation, precision index, t-probe, Pearson rank-correlation). To code the mistakes of the dynamic balance exercises we used the SPSS software. Results are depicted in the form of bar and pie charts. 8. MAIN OBSERVATION OF THE PAPER: 8.1. From the observations of standing, walking and hopping balance exercises In the course of the balance examinations we were able to observe static as well as dynamic co-ordinations on the primary school sample. Summary of the results of static and dynamic balance exercises: In the course of static balance examination in the form of a trial of standing on one foot we observed the following:? Primary school students made an average of 6 mistakes, the boys 5.3 and the girls 6.7? The comparison of grades shows a better performance of 4 th grade boys and 5 th grade girls Based on the results of dynamic balance exercises we came to the following conclusions:? Results of walking exercises used in dynamic examinations show that exclusion of visual control increases both the number of mistakes and the length of time necessary for the task? Walking forward with open eyes was performed with an average of 3.5 mistakes while walking forward with closed eyes resulted in an average of 6.1 mistakes. Walking backward with open eyes resulted in a high average number of mistakes? In all three walking exercises the boys performed better. Difference in performance of the sexes was increased by the exclusion of visual control. (closed eyes, walking backwards) (Note: While girls performed better in static balance exercises, boys were better in the dynamic ones. Dynamic exercises require a higher level of space sense.)? In senior grades boys performed better in all walking exercises. Performance of girls is more unstable depending on age and type of exercise.
8 ? In the hopping exercises tasks that required the right foot resulted in better performance proving right side dominance majority.? In comparison of the sexes the boys performed with fewer mistakes in all hopping exercises.? Result of the hopping exercises show a more precise performance if the 8 th grade both in terms of foot and sex.? Looking at the average number of mistakes, we can say static exercises are more difficult to carry out. In the dynamic exercises walking forward with closed eyes presented more problems for both sexes.? Dynamic exercise mistakes occurred more frequently than static exercise mistakes? We also have to take into account the tiredness effect which is more intense in the second part of the static exercises and occurs unpredictably in the dynamic ones Observations in the serial throw and jump exercises: Throwing and jumping are natural movements of humans. To examine the consistency of performance in the sample, we asked for repeated execution of the tasks.? A considerable improvement in the results of serial throws can be observed in both sexes in the 4 th year. The increase in performance was followed by an increase in precision in both sexes. A possible conclusion is that the ability of throw performance reproduction improves with age.? In the throw results and the precision index as it was expected boys performed better in all age groups.? Results of the serial jumps were very similar to that of the serial throws: there is also an increase in performance and performance consistency after a four year period.? In serial jumps boys performed better (performance and performance reproduction) than girls in all age groups Target precision observations Target precision was examined in all primary school grades (1-8) in terms of hand, foot, siding, position of target surface (standing, lying, and vertical, horizontal. We were able to compare performance in targeting both standing and moving target surfaces.? Primary school students made an average of 3.1 mistakes (off target throws) out of 5 attempts. We can say that there was 38 % success rate in this exercise.? In targeting a standing target surface boys made fewer mistakes in both the vertical and horizontal target surface tasks.? Although it cannot be justified statistically, targeting a horizontal target surface proved easier for both sexes. (Note: in our earlier examinations of kindergarten and lower grade primary school students (years 3-9) targeting a vertical target surface was easier performed)? In terms of kicks the targeting had a 50% success rate for both sexes regardless of whether a standing or a lying surface was targeted.? Targeting a standing target surface proved easier by foot (kicks) than by arm (throws) since we observed fewer off target kicks than throws.
9 ? Hitting a moving target surface presents a more difficult task than hitting a standing surface because better location of the target reduces the occurrence of mistakes.? Better targeting performance of boys can only be justified in its tendency.? 8 th grade boys had the best performance hitting a moving target In the secondary school sample we were able to observe the targeting (by kicks) performance of young gymnasts (ten boys). We obtained information about the change in targeting precision depending on training effect and time of the day.? In the group that have not had a football training, targeting performance changes depending on training effect and time of the day could not be statistically explained because of the high level of variability.? However, the tendency of changes signals that non-specific tiredness is also likely to decrease precision of kicking performance Observations concerning time estimation The sense of time was examined by having the students estimate different lengths of time. W can see the signed mistakes of estimation (over and under estimation). The level of mistake was determined compared to the time to be estimated (100%)? We can state that overall underestimation mistakes were bigger, that is, students most of the time rushed with their estimation.? If we look at the signed mistakes of estimation by the different lengths of time we can see, that with the 8 sec time length overestimation was more dominant. It resulted in an almost unrealistically high percentage of mistakes in the first grade sample, a fact, which underlines that sense of time at the age of 6-7 is very undeveloped. It is especially true if we ask this age group to estimate time lengths of only a few seconds.? The older the student and the bigger the time length the fewer mistakes occur. 9. NEW FINDINGS OF THE PAPER The problem addressed in the definition topic was discussed by a complex approach. By analysing the consistency and stability values dependent on individual abilities from both the point of view of movement execution and movement efficiency, it can be considered a new initiative to assess performance objectively. The precision index can be accepted as an indicator, which serves as an objective basis for assessment and by its application the acquisition process of different types of movement can be monitored and expressed in an objective way. Another new finding of the survey is the observations which point out that in the reproduction of the different movement types of different complexity depending on age and background we should expect significantly differing precision values. We believe that the summarising definition following the examinations also signifies the new nature of our research since we had not met such a comprehensive, complex, and synthesising definition. The circumstances of sampling also help to provide a new explanation of the results, since we rarely find research results which describe a relatively closed community with a homogenous milieu in terms of material, personal and socio-economical characteristics, thus increasing the reliability of data.
10 Out of the techniques used in the survey we consider the data collection concerning siding, the observed mistake types and frequency provide a unique approach Definition Because of the complex nature of movement precision, precision, target precision and movement reproduction as concepts are approached in various ways in the vast foreign and domestic professional literature. After an overview of the professional literature we can draw the following conclusions: Movement precision in sport is a skill that can be acquired by learning and practice and makes it possible to execute different tasks according to their technical requirements in a successful and co-ordinated way, if needed, several times. Repeated reproduction can be characterised by constancy of movement execution. (Movement precision can be observed in the identical nature of movements, the constancy of the elements of the movement, target precision, the constancy of results and the right technical execution without correction. By definition a high level of performance reproduction is a crucial factor and criterion of movement precision. We may state that the constancy of performance reproduction is a necessary but not adequate prerequisite of movement precision. Based on the results of our research and the definition we can state that our hypothesis has been justified. The constancy and high level of movement reproduction results in better performance in innerly guided situations requiring closed-movement ability. In open movement ability processes the level of performance is not significantly influenced by this factor as there are several other factors that play a role in it (tactical knowledge, situational quickness etc.) Measuring methodology In examining dynamic balance the 5m long course and the dynamic balance exercises suggested by us can be efficiently used. The latter are connected with the coding technique the SPSS assessment. In this way get a view of the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the mistake. The three digit mistake type informs us whether the mistake is on the dominant or non dominant side, whether it is considered a small or a big mistake by magnitude. This gives us information whether the mistake is made near or far from the centre line of the body providing a valuable information for correction. Based on the homogenous mistake dispersion we concluded that on the 5 m track there is no mistake resulting from tiredness, thus it is suitable for examining dynamic balance as the training effect as a disturbing outside factor does not play a role The survey In the course of our movement precision examinations we presented the results of the Balkay Pál primary school of Tiszaors. These results were such, as we expected and as they are predicted in the preliminary studies mentioned in the special bibliography. (E.g. girls performed better in static, while boys in dynamic exercises.) We obtained results that were surprising and unpredictable, for example the quantity and positive/negative deviation of mistakes in the time estimation of first graders and also the significant difference in the mistakes of the different time lengths. 10. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE RESULTS The results call our attention to the need of the improvement of movement precision as a complex ability and as the definitions point out also to the importance of practice in movement acquisition. As both condition and co-ordination abilities serve as a basis for movement precision they both require improvement.
11 11. PUBLICATIONS: Theses:? Müller A. (1995): Az atlétikai dobások elokészítése éveseknél különös tekintettel a gerelyhajításra és súlylökésre. Szakdolgozat. Eger? Kovács O. Müller A. (1997): Az óvodások és kisiskolások labdabiztonságának alakulása. Szakdolgozat. MTE Budapest.? Müller A. (2002): A marketing és menedzsment szerepe a sportban. Szakdolgozat. Szolnok Study Circle Works:? Müller A. Kovács O. (1996): Labdaérzék, gömbérzék. MTE házi TDK, II. helyezés? Müller A. Kovács O. (1997): Az óvodások és kisiskolások labdabiztonságának alakulása? MTE házi TDK. III. 20. I. helyezés? Müller A. Kovács O. (1997): Az óvodások és kisiskolások labdabiztonságának alakulása. XXIII. OTDK Szombathely, ápr / I. helyezés? Müller A. (1998): A labdajátékok szerepe az alaptantervi reformtörekvésekben. KGF házi TDK / I. hely / nov.11.? Müller A. (1999): A rúgáspontosság alakulása aspecifikus edzés hatására. MTE házi TDK ? Müller A. (1999): A rúgáspontosság alakulása non-specifikus edzés hatására. / különdíj / XXIV. OTDK Budapest, ápr ? Müller A. (1999): A labdajátékok szerepe az alaptantervi reformtörekvésekben / I. hely /XXIV OTDK. Budapest, ápr In English:? Müller A. Kovács O. (1996): Feel for the ball. MTE nemzetközi TDK V. 10. I. helyezés? Müller A. (2000): Accuracy of Throws as a Result of Non-Specific Training, The 14 th International Congress on Sport Sciences for Students (Nemzetközi Tudományos Diákköri Konferencia, Phd szekció), Bp. április Lectures: Lectures connected with topic in Hungarian:? Müller A. Kovács O. (1996): Az alapveto testmérések szerepe az óvodások és kisiskolások labdakezelésében. A Magyar Biológiai Társaság Mozgás- és Viselkedésbiológiai Szimpózuma. Agárd, szept / eloadás /? Müller A. (1997): A labdajátékok szerepe az alaptantervi reformtörekvésekben. A magyar Biológiai Társaság Mozgás és viselkedésbiológiai Szimpóziuma. Agárd, okt.? Müller A. (1998): Rúgáspontosság alakulása a specifikus edzés hatására. Mozgásbiológiai konferencia. MTE Budapest. szept ? Müller A. (1999): A rúgáspontosság alakulása non-specifikus edzés hatására. III. Országos Sporttudományi Kongresszus. márc Budapest MTE.? Müller A. (1999): Adatok eltéro szakok szakmódszertani foglalkozásának sajátosságaiból. Apáczai Napok Nemzetközi Tudományos Konferencia, Gyor, okt ? Müller A. (1999): A NOT és a NAT összehasonlító elemzése a labdajátékok példáján. Tudomány Napi Konferencia Szolnok, nov. 3.
12 ? Müller A. (1999): A NOT és a NAT összehasonlító elemzése a labdajátékok példáján. Tudomány Napi Konferencia. KGF napok Szolnok, nov. 5.? Müller A. Bicsérdy G. (2002): A sport szerepe a foiskolai hallgatók értékrendjében. Mozgásbiológiai Konferencia, Budapest, november Lectures connected with topic in English:? Müller A. Rigler E. (2001): Movement Reproduction examination among primary and secondary school children. 7 th International Symposium of Human Biology, Koszeg, április Interdisciplinary lectures, not strictly connected with topic, in Hungarian:? Müller A. (2000): A vidéki (falusi) turizmus, mint az idegenforgalom új alternatívája (eloadás), Mozgásbiológiai Konferencia, Semmelweis Egyetem Testnevelési és Sporttudományi Kar, Bp. szeptember 28.? Müller A. (2000): A sport, mint a turisztikai termékfejlesztés egyik alternatívája (eloadás), Szolnoki Foiskola Tudomány Napi Konferenciája, nov. 2.? Müller A. (2001): A sport jelentosége Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok Megye Turisztikai termékfejlesztésében. A Szolnoki Foiskola Tudomány Napi Konferenciája, Szolnok, november 5.? Müller A. (2001): A sportturizmus jelentosége Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok Megye Turisztikai termékfejlesztésében. Tudomány Napi Konferencia, Szolnok, november 6.? Müller A. Rigler E. (2001): Sorozatugrások és sorozatdobások egyenletességének alakulása általános és középiskolai tanulók mozgásában. Mozgásbiológiai Szimpózium Bp. november 8. Interdisciplinary lectures, not stictly connected with topic, in English:? Müller A. (2000): Rural tourism in Connection with Sports Activities in Jász- Nagykun-Szolnok County (Hungary) (eloadás) 1 st World Forum on Agritourism and Rural Tourism Perugia (Italy) szeptember Poster lectures in Hungarian:? Müller A. (2000): Adatok a mozgáspontosság kísérleti vizsgálatához. (poszter eloadás), Semmelweis Egyetem Doktori Iskola PhD Tudományos Napok, Bp. február ? Müller A. Rigler E.(2001): Mozgásreprodukció és mozgáspontosság iskolás korban. I. Országos Neveléstudományi Konferencia. Bp. MTA. október Poszter eloadás? Müller A. Rigler E.(2002): A mozgáspontosság, mint a motoros tehetség egyik ismérve. (poszter eloadás) Tavaszi Szél, DOSZ konferencia, Gödöllo, ápr ? Müller A. Rigler E. (2002): Idoérzék, mozgásritmus, mozgásegyenletesség, II. Országos Neveléstudományi Konferencia, Bp. MTA, poszter eloadás, okt Konferencia kiadványkötet, 420. p. Poster lectures in English:? Fügedi B. Rigler E. Derzsy B.- Müller A. (2001): Investigation of Reproducing a Choreographed Movement Series. 15. th Congress of the German Society of Sport Science. Köln, július Poszter eloadás.? Müller A. (2003): Time Estimation as a Criterion of Movement Precision. Phisical Education and the Third Millenium. Presov, Slovakia. jun Poszter eloadás. Articles connected with topic in Hungarian:? Müller A. (1999): A labdajátékok szerepe az alaptantervi reformtörekvésekben. OTDK 99 Kiadványkötet, MTE, I. kötet, p.
13 ? Müller A. (1999): A rúgáspontosság alakulása non-specifikus edzés hatására. OTDK 99 Kiadványkötet, MTE, I. kötet, p.? Müller A. (1999): A labdajátékok szerepe az alaptantervi reformtörekvésekben. OTDK 99 Kiadványkötet, MTE, II. kötet, p.? Müller A. Rigler E. Derzsy B. (1999): A rúgáspontosság alakulása nonspecifikus edzés hatására. In: III. Országos Sporttudományos Kongresszus kiadványkötetében, Szerk.: dr. Mónus András, Kiadó: Magyar Sporttudományi Társaság, p.? Müller A. (2000): Labdabiztonság kisgyermekkorban. Játék az ezredfordulón Konferencia nov , Székesfehérvár. In: Forgó, Kiss Áron: Magyar Játék Társaság lapja I. évfolyam 5. (külön) szám, 7. p.? Müller A. (2002): Teljesítményállandósági vizsgálatok az ugrások és a dobások példáján. VI. Tudománynapi Konferencia, Szolnok, november 6. In: VI. Tudománynapi Konferencia cd kiadványa.? Müller A. (2002): Mozgáspontossági és teljesítményállandósági vizsgálatok. Doktoranduszok I. Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok megyei Tudományos Konferenciája, november 8. Szolnok, Zrínyi Miklós Nemzetvédelmi Egyetem. In: Doktorandusok I. Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok megyei Tudományos Konferenciájának cd kiadványában.? Müller A. (2003): Az idobecslés, mint a mozgáspontosság ismérve. In: Bólyai Hadtudományi Szemle. Müller A. Rigler E.(2004): Hat-tizennyolc éves tanulók dobó és ugrófeladatokban mutatott teljesítményállandósának alakulása. In: Kalokagathia. (megjelenés alatt)? Müller A. (2004): Az idobecslés pontossága. In: Iskola és testnevelés, Pécs (megjelenés alatt) Articles connected with topic in English:? Rigler E. Müller A. (2002): Movement Reproduction Examination Among Primary and Secondary School Children. In.: Bólyai Hadtudományi Szemle XI. évf. 4. szám. (www.bjkmf.hu)? Müller A. (2003): Time Estimation as a Criterion of Movement Precision. Phisical Education and the Third Millenium. Presov, Slovakia. jun In: Telesná Vychova a sport Tretom Trisícroci Elektronicky zborník p.? Müller A. (2003): Time Estimation as a Criterion of Movement Precision. In: 4 th International Conference of PHD Students p. Interdisciplinary articles, not strictly connected with topic, in Hungarian:? Müller A. (2000): A sport, mint a turisztikai termékfejlesztés egyik alternatívája. In: Szolnoki Foiskola tudományos közleményei Economica II p.? Müller A. (2001): A sportturizmus jelentosége Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok megye Turisztikai termékfejlesztésében. In: Szolnoki Tudományos Közlemények V. Szolnok, p.? Müller A.- Könyves E.(2002): Az egészségturisztikai képzés integrálása a Foiskola oktatási programjába. Egészségturisztikai Oktatási Fórum, Budapest, ápr. 12. In: Egészségturisztikai Oktatási Fórum Kiadványkötete p.
14 Interdisciplinary articles, not strictly connected with topic, in English:? Müller A. (2000): Rural tourism in Connection with Sports Activities in Jász- Nagykun-Szolnok County (Hungary) (tanulmány) megjelent: International Seminar Agritourism. A Key option for the Rural Integrated and Sustainable Development Strategy kiadványkötetben, p. Interdisciplinary part of a book, not strictly connected with topic, in Hungarian:? Könyves E. Müller A. (2001): Szabadidos programok a falusi turizmusban. Könyv. Szaktudás Kiadó Ház, Bp p. Coursbook not connected with topic in Hungarian:? Müller A. (2002): Turizmusföldrajz I. Európa, jegyzet, Készült az Európai Unió támogatásával, Phare projekt, Kiadó: Szolnoki Foiskola, p.