1 INDIRECT / REPORTED SPEECH (FÜGGŐ BESZÉD) A függő beszéd egy valaki részéről elhangzott kijelentés, kérdés, felszólítás, óhaj, kívánság vagy tanácsadás közvetítése tárgyi mellékmondat formájában. Ha a főmondat (az idézetet bevezető mondat) állítmánya jelen időben, jövő időben, vagy Present Perfect-ben van, a mellékmondat (ami maga az idézet) változatlan marad. Ha a főmondat állítmánya múlt időben van, a mellékmondatban az alábbiak szerinti változtatásokra van szükség. he is he was he was he had been he will be he would be he works he worked he is working he was working he has worked he had worked he has been working he had been working he worked he had worked he was working he had been working he had worked ugyanaz he had been working ugyanaz he will work he would work he will be working he would be working he will have worked he would have worked he will have been working he would have been working will would last night the previous night/ the night before shall should next week the following week may might today that day can could yesterday the previous day/ the day before have to had to the day before two days before yesterday must must/ have to megfelelő alakja tomorrow the next day/ the following day the day after tomorrow in two day s time a year ago a year before/ the previous year here there this that could, would, should, might, ought to nincs változás these those now then Csoportosításuk: I. Kijelentő mondatok II. Kérdő mondatok III. Felszólító mondatok, óhaj, kívánság, tanácsadás IV. Különleges esetek
2 I. Kijelentő mondatok A kijelentő mondatok jellegzetessége, hogy a főmondat és a mellékmondat között that kötőszó áll, amely akár el is hagyható, ha a két tagmondat közötti kapcsolat tárgyi alárendelés. A főmondat és a mellékmondat közé a magyar helyesírási szabályoktól eltérően- nem teszünk vesszőt. He told me, I have been waiting for you for a long time. He told me (that) he had been waiting me for a long time. A mellékmondat bevezetése többnyire a következő igékkel történik: say, tell sy(!), inform, announce, explain, prove, complain, mention, hear, read, write, let sy know, object, protest, shout, whisper A kijelentő mondatok képzésekor a fenti léptetési szabályokat kell alkalmazni. Vannak azonban kivételek és különleges esetek, amikor nem szükséges változtatás. Nincs igeidőváltozás az alábbi esetekben Feltételes mondatok: az 1. típusban a mellékmondat a léptetési szabályok szerint alakul, míg a 2. és 3. típusban változatlan marad. 1. típus: She said, I will be here in time if I catch the bus. She said (that ) she would be there in time if she caught the bus. 2. típus: If I had the necessary documents, I could get the job, he said. He said (that) if he had the necessary documents, he could get the job. 3. típus: She said to him, I wouldn t have left you if you hadn t cheated me. She said to him (that) she wouldn t have left him if he hadn t cheated her. A Simple Past változatlan maradhat, ha a cselekvés időpontja konkrétan meg van határozva We returned home on Sunday, they said. They said (that) they returned/ had returned home on Sunday. A Past Continuous változatlan maradhat abban az esetben, ha az a cselekvés folyamatosságára utal, nem pedig annak befejezettségére When I met her she was preparing for her exams, he said. He said (that) when he met her she was preparing for her exams. De: She said, I was planning to sell my flat, but finally I have changed my mind. She said (that) she had been planning to sell her flat but finally she had changed her mind. wish/ if only; would rather; had better; it is (high) time we...használatakor nincs változás I wish/ if only we didn t write a test, my son said. My son said (that) he wished they didn t write a test. I would rather you bought this golden necklace, said my wife. My wife said (that) she would rather I bought that golden necklace. You had better stay in bed for a few days, said the doctor. The doctor said that I had better stay in bed for a few days. It is (high) time we went home, our guests said. Our guests said (that) it was (high) time they went home. Természeti törvények, örök igazságok említésekor Galileo proved that the Earth goes round the Sun.
3 II. Kérdő mondatok Kérdő mondatokban is a kijelentő mondatoknál alkalmazott változtatásokra van szükség, viszont lényeges különbség, hogy itt nem használhatjuk a that-at kötőszóként. A kérdő szórend egyenes szórenddé változik, és nem kérdőjel, hanem pont van a mondat végén. A két tagmondat közé itt sem teszünk vesszőt. Az egyenes kérdést bevezető say igét ask, inquire, wonder, want to know etc. érdeklődést kifejező igévé kell változtatni. He said, Is there a library in your town? He inquired if there was a library in our town. Két fajtáját különböztetjük meg: a, Kérdőszóval bevezetett (kiegészítendő) kérdések Az átalakítás során a kérdőszó lesz a függő mondat kötőszava. Where do you live? she asked. She asked me where I lived. Csak ask vezetheti be a függő kérdést, ha megnevezzük a személyt, akihez a kérdést intézzük The doctor asked me, What are you complaining about? The doctor asked me what I was complaining about. b, Kérdőszó nélküli (eldöntendő) kérdések Kötőszóként if vagy whether (vajon) használatos. She asked, Can you cook? He inquired, Do you speak English? She asked me if / whether I could swim. He inquired if / whether I spoke English. Megjegyzés: whether szerepel kötőszóként, ha a kérdés két választási lehetőséget tartalmaz He asked, Do you want to make a call or not? He asked whether I wanted to make a call or not. He asked, Do you want to travel by air or rail? He asked whether I wanted to travel by air or by rail. whether + infinitive akkor alkalmazható, ha wonder, want to know vezeti be a függő kérdést (az inquire ritkán használatos) He wondered, Shall/ Should I try to repair it or have a mechanic in? He wondered whether to try to repair it or have a mechanic in. He wondered whether he should try to repair it or have a mechanic in. feltételes módban whether-t használunk, mert máskülönben két if-nek kellene a mondatban szerepelnie He asked, If you sell your old car, will you buy a new one? He asked whether, if I sold my old car, I would buy a new one. shall I / we? a, jövőbeli eseményre vonatkozó találgatás esetén többnyire wonder-t használunk bevezetésként He wondered, Shall I ever meet her again? He wondered if he would ever meet her again. b, ask, inquire etc. bevezető igét és should vagy be + infinitive szerkezetet alkalmazunk, ha tanácsot kérünk vagy utasításra várunk He said, Where shall I put this chair, grandma? He asked his grandma where he was to put that chair. He asked his grandma where he should put that chair. c, kínálás, segítség felajánlása She said, Shall I make you some coffee? She offered me to make some coffee. d, javaslat He said, Shall we meet outside the cinema? He suggested meeting outside the cinema. will you / would you / could you? a, szokványos kérdésekben He said, Will you be there at the reunion? He asked if I would be there at the reunion.
4 b, kérés, kívánság kifejezésére He said, Would/ Could you sew my jacket, please? He asked/ told me to sew his jacket. c, meghívás He said, Would you like to come to my barbecue party next Saturday? He asked if I would like to go to his barbecue party the following Saturday. d, alkalmanként parancs, utasítás kifejezésére The teacher said, Will you stop prompting! The teacher told/ ordered us to stop prompting.
5 III. Felszólító mondatok, óhaj, kívánság, tanácsadás Az ilyen típusú mondatok bevezetéseként a következő igék alkalmazhatók: advise, ask, beg, command, encourage, entreat, forbid, implore, invite, order, recommend, remind, request, tell, urge, warn etc. My mum said, Go to sleep! Don t leave your room untidy, she warned me. You had better call for a doctor! I told her. The manager said to us, Sit down!. My mum told me to go to sleep. She warned me not to leave my room untidy. I advised her to call for a doctor. The manager ordered us to sit down. - az ask és beg igéket követheti szenvedő szerkezet Don t leave me alone, she asked. She asked/ begged not to leave her alone. She asked/ begged not to be left alone. - will you...? Will you listen to me? said our teacher. Our teacher ordered/ told us to listen to him. - say / tell + alany + be + infinitive a, ha az utasítást múlt idejű ige vezeti be He said, Don t lock the door. He told me not to lock the door. He said that I wasn t to lock the door. b, ha az utasítást jelen idejű ige vezeti be He says, Meet me at the airport. He says that we are to meet him at the airport. c, ha az utasítást időhatározói vagy feltételes mellékmondat előzi meg He said, If she appears, keep an eye on her. He said that if she appeared, I was to keep an eye on her.
6 IV. Különleges esetek Felkiáltások - What (a).../ How...! kezdetű mondatokat exclaim that/ say that igékkel vezetjük be She said, What a good idea! She exclaimed that it was a good idea. She said, How horrible! She exclaimed that it was horrible. - Good! Marvellous! Splendid! Heavens! Oh! Ugh! felkiáltásokat bevezethetjük give an exclamation of delight/ disgust/ horror/ relief/ surprise kifejezésekkel Splendid! he exclaimed. He gave an exclamation of pleasure/ satisfaction. - egyéb esetek He said, Thank you! He thanked me. He said, Good luck! He wished me luck. He said, Happy Christmas! He wished me a happy Christmas. He said, Congratulations! He congratulated me. He said, Liar! He called me a liar. He said, Damn! He swore. The notice said: Welcome to England! The notice welcomed visitors to England. yes / no He said, Can you drive? and I said No. He asked (me) if I could drive and I said I couldn t. He said, Will you help me? and I said Yes. He asked (me) if I would help him and I said I would. let s(not) esetében a bevezetés a suggest-tel történik He said, Let s go on a sightseeing tour. He suggested going on a sightseeing tour. He suggested that we/ they should go on a sightseeing tour. He said, Let s not move it till the inspector arrives. He suggested not moving it till the inspector arrives He suggested that we/ they shouldn t move it till the inspector arrives. let him / them - kötelességre figyelmeztetés It s not my task, said the officer. Let the government take measures about it. The officer said that it wasn t his task and the government ought to/ should take measures about it. - utasítás Let the cleaner sweep the floor, said the manager. The manager said that the cleaner was to sweep the floor. - javaslat Let them go to the Hungarian Embassy, he said. He suggested their/ them going to the Hungarian Embassy. He said/ suggested that they should go to the Hungarian Embassy. - megengedés Let her join us, dad; we will take good care of her, I said. I asked my dad to let her join us and I assured him to take a good care of her. must - következtetés He said, I meet her every day; she must be my new neighbour. He said that he met her every day and she must be his new neighbour. - utasítás He said, These things mustn t be touched. He said that those things mustn t be touched. must / have to kötelezettségek, előre eltervezett dolgok esetén He said, I must write an essay. He said that he had to write an essay. He said, I must be at the station in ten minutes. He said that he had to be at the station in ten minutes.
7 must? Why must you leave the party so soon? he said. He asked me why I had to leave the party so soon. must not He said to me, You mustn t tell the secret. He said to me that I mustn t tell the secret. He said to me not to tell the secret. needn t He said, You needn t wait for me. He said to me that I needn t wait for him. need? Need I go to the negotiation? I asked my boss. I asked my boss if I had to go to the negotiation.
8 Ha a főmondat állítmánya jelenben, jövőben, vagy Present Perfect-ben van Kijelentő mondatok I want to speak to you, he says. He says that he wants to speak to me. We have been in the room for an hour, they have told us. They have told us they have been in the room for an hour These exercises are too difficult for you, I will tell her. I will tell her that those exercises are too difficult for her. You wrote me a long letter last week, he has told me. He has told me I wrote him a log letter the previous week. You are hopeless at Maths, our teacher often says to us. Our teacher often says to us that we are hopeless at Maths. You have been rather impolite, I will tell him. I will tell him that he has been rather impolite. Ha a főmondat állítmánya múlt időben van Kijelentő mondatok I m very strong, he boasted. He boasted that he was very strong. We weren t at school yesterday, she told me. She told me they hadn t been at school the day before. You work very hard for this company, my boss said to me. My boss said (to me) that I worked very hard for that company. We are waiting for you, they told us. They told us that they were waiting for us. You can swim very well, my sister said to him. My sister said to him that he could swim very well. You may go home now, he told her. He told her that she might go home then. I visited my aunt last month, said my friend. My friend said that he had visited his aunt the month before. We will go to your place tomorrow, they said. They said they would come to my/ our place the next day. We have been waiting here for long hours, they told him. They told him that they had been waiting there for long hours. I saw these photos of yours two years ago, he said to me. He said to me he had seen those photos of mine two years before. Kérdő mondatok a, kérdőszóval bevezetett Kérdő mondatok a, kérdőszóval bevezetett Where have you lived before? I will ask her. I will ask her where she has lived before. How much do you think it will cost? I asked him. I asked him how much he thought it would cost. What colour is your car? we have inquired. We have inquired what colour his/ her/ their car is. What time did your son arrive? she asked us. She asked us what time our son had arrived. How often does she travel abroad? I wonder. I wonder how often she travels abroad. How long have you been cooking this soup? we asked them. We asked them how long they had been cooking that soup. Why will you destroy this house? we will ask them. We will ask them why they will destroy that house. How many times did you invite her last year? I wondered. I wondered how many times he had invited her the previous year. How old is your brother? she has asked me. She has asked me how old my brother is. Who will buy our tickets? they asked me. They asked me who would buy their tickets. When they will meet me? she wants to know. She wants to know when they will meet her. What makes you laugh? the clown inquired. The clown inquired what made me/us laugh. b, kérdőszó nélküli b, kérdőszó nélküli Are you working? I have asked him. Can you give me this book? she asked me. I have asked him if/whether he is working. She asked me if/whether I could give her that book. Am I clever? my daughter often asks me. Shall I open the window? our guest inquired. My daughter often asks me if/whether she is clever. Our guest inquired if/whether he/she should open the window. Do you find me reliable? I will ask her. May I take your order, please? the waiter asked us. I will ask her if/whether she finds me reliable. The waiter asked us if/whether he might take our order. Have you got any pets? they have asked him. Do I have to change trains anywhere? I wanted to know. They have asked him if/whether he has got some pets. I wanted to know if/whether I/we had to change trains somewhere. Did they accept your credit card? he wants to know. Have you seen our new car? they inquired. He wants to know if/whether they accepted my/our credit card. Have you been to Spain? I have asked her. I have asked her if/whether she has been to Spain. They inquired if/whether I/we had seen their new car. Do you think she will be here tomorrow? he asked me. He asked me if/whether I thought she would be there the next day. Felszólító mondatok Join us! they have told him. They have told him to join them. Don t lock the door! I will warn my children. I will warn my children not to lock the door. Be polite! our teachers say to us quite often. Our teachers say to us quite often that we should be polite. Don t forget to post the letter! I will ask Mary. I will ask Mary not to forget to post the letter. Felszólító mondatok Go to bed! my grandpa said to me. My grandpa said to me to go to bed. Don t touch this switch! I ordered them. I ordered them not to touch that switch. Wait for me till I come back! she remind me. She reminded me to wait for her till she came back. Don t drive too fast! my wife warned me. My wife warned me not to drive too fast.