1 Colour Symbolism, Colour Preference in the Hungarian Folklore and Folk Architecture Anna Zöldi
2 Copyright 2000 Anna Zöldi This research report was downloaded from the Research Support Scheme Electronic Library at The work on the report was made possible by a grant from, and was published by, the Research Support Scheme of the Open Society Support Foundation. The digitisation of the report was supported by the publisher. Research Support Scheme Bartolomějská Praha 1 Czech Republic The digitisation and conversion of the report to PDF was completed by Virtus. Virtus Libínská Praha 5 Czech Republic The information published in this work is the sole responsibility of the author and should not be construed as representing the views of the Research Support Scheme/Open Society Support Foundation. The RSS/OSSF takes no responsibility for the accuracy and correctness of this work. Any comments related to the contents of this work should be directed to the author. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the author.
3 Contents 1. Abstract Objectives proposed Findings A Description of the main research findings b The importance of findings Difficulties Intended Use of the Findings Future Developments General Remarks Specific Activities A Field Research, Archival Studies B Study trips C Conferences, seminars D Other activities Publications A List of publications Detailed summary A Methodology...18 System of work, methods, tools and sources...18 Sources...19 Books B Description of the main research findings...23 Contents...23 Introduction B Description of the main research findings...24 Introduction About the COLOUR COLOUR as a sign Colour Systems Colour in the Hungarian Folk Art The character of the Hungarian folk art The symbolic meaning of the different colours From the aspect of colouring there are two categories Folk architecture Description of one territory from the aspect of colour-preference KALOCSA (fig ) Folk Art in Kalocsa region Colour harmonies in the Kalocsa folk art and architecture Other territories study trips (fig ) Summary List of study trips Conclusion Bevezetés...58 A. A népművészet helye, jelentősége...58 B. Kulturális kapcsolatok a magyar történelem folyamán...58 C. A kulturális kapcsolatok hatása a művészetre, a magas művészet és népművészet kapcsolata...60 D. Földrajzi vonatkozások A vizuális érzékelés feltételei, a vizuális hatás összetevői...63 A. Bevezetés - a vizuális jelek halmazának rendje...63 B. A vizuális kompozíció formai felépítése...64 C. A színek vizuális hatása, a színharmóniák feltételei A magyar népművészet formai sajátosságai...69 A. Az építészetben...69 B. A színhasználatban...69 Irodalomjegyzék...74 Képek forrásai...76
5 1 1. Abstract 1. Abstract The Hungarian way of decoration bears a certain characteristic which has roots in the deep symbolism of the ancient Hungarian mythical thinking. The ancient heritage of the Hungarian s ex-homeland situated somewhere in the Ural region contained eastern elements. During their migration the Hungarian tribes met other eastern people and their culture of decoration mixed with other far-eastern elements. These rather diverse influences had a certain result: the Hungarian way of thinking, building and ornamentation reflects dualism: puritanism and rationalism in creating space and manufacturing together with rich fantasy in decoration and ornamentation. The Hungarians put coloured ornamentation the only to emphasize symbolic importance of the details. The colouring system of the built surrounding bears the same dualism: the main colour of the facades and inner walls is white while the furniture, the textiles the gates and windows and sometimes the gable and the fireplace are richly decorated. In the Hungarian symbolism the house and the settlement is the model of the universe so the different parts of them has also transcendent meaning. The traditional meaning of the different colours agree with this transcendence. Each colour has ambivalent meaning. RED the colour of blood means violence and love. YELLOW means sickness, death and ripeness (golden yellow). BLUE means innocence, eternity (light blue) and old age, death (dark blue). BLACK can be ceremonial and mourning as well. WHITE (the general colour of the outside walls of living houses) can have sacred meaning (bright white) while the yellowish white canvas is the most common wear of men and women in village society. GREEN is the only colour which has not got dual meaning it symbolizes the beginning of life (green grass). The Hungarian folk art uses colouring in two ways. One or two coloured decoration (red, black, blue, red-blue or red-black) end of 18 th century and the beginning of the 19 th century. Multicoloured decoration since beginning of the 19 th century. The characteristic points of using colours are: using complementary contrast, bright colours on plain background, and avoiding slight differences.
6 2 2. Objectives proposed 2. Objectives proposed This field colouring in the Hungarian folk-art has been researched on by ethnography but has not been systematized. The Museum of Ethnography in Budapest has an enormous collection of multicoloured pieces and drawings of decoration but they are kept in order made upon the time of their creating or collecting. In the last ten years the researchers payed more attention to the semiotical approach, but the language of colours although it is the most common sign language seems to be the most complicated to reconstruct as colouring changes quickly and can easily disappear. Preliminary my purpose was to find some principles of the use of the colours in the Hungarian folk architecture. Leading up on this subject I found that I have to spread my investigation over the whole Hungarian folklore which means pieces of oral tradition together with real objects, for example buildings. I studied archival material (drawings, photos), bibliography, and the present situation. (see part 10.A) I managed to get a general outlook of the system of using colours and how it has been changing in consequence of social factors. I found 3 periods in the folklore which has their own special attitude to the colours. (10.B.1) I determined the role of the colours in the sign language of the folklore and described the complex sense of each colour. (10.B.2) I described the main principles of colouring in visual compositions. (10.B.2) I studied architecture with special attention comparing it with the other branches of folkart. (10.B.3) This study covers a detailed investigation on a special territory and some other examples with general discussion. (10.B.4; 10.B.5) The result of my work has not lived up to my all expectations. In the case of the colours. I could not find exact principles in symbolism, or even exact symbolism in folk architecture. One reason for this can be that the subject itself (colouring) is not anything we can speak about with using exact terms. I collected data which can prove that each culture has its own colour language and can help to determine the special character of Hungarian folk art.
7 3 3. Findings 3. Findings 3.A Description of the main research findings (the para numbers are cross referenced to the ones used in para 10.b) Introduction facts: The traditional building activity and decoration in Hungary is influenced by the following A The culture of the Hungarian tribes at the time of their arrival at their present homeland (10-11 cent) is determined by two factors: - Traditions of the ancient homeland of the Hungarian people (Ural region, Middle Asia) - Influences on Hungarian tribes during their migration to the Carpathian Basin (Kazar, Bulgar-Turkish) B. The local traditions of this territory (the Carpathian basin) - The Avar Culture (at the central territories, influenced the settlement structure). - Slavian influence (at the borders of the Basin) - The heritage of the roman empire (Christian Culture). These rather diverse influences had a unique result: the Hungarian way of thinking, building, ornamentation reflects certain dualism: Puritanism and rationalism together with rich fantasy and attraction to fancy decoration which gives a unique character to the traditional Hungarian architecture. The colouring of the houses bears the same characteristic: the main colour is white which dominates facades and inner walls. Hungarian people use colorful ornaments only on details which have special structural or symbolic importance. Symbolism in the Hungarian Folklore 2.1 Symbolism in architecture, characteristic points Contrast, dominance - one story buildings around the high church - wide facades with small windows etc Lack of axiality or different axises on one facades Connection between indoors and outdoors - open veranda (oriental tradition) - houses are standing separately in their surroundings Settlement structure - ring shaped settlement with common inner and outer yards - ribbon development - special Hungarian type called szer -similar - to farm (western transdanubian style of building)
8 4 3. Findings The different structures and details have symbolic importance, they have antropomorf names - facade face, intel in Hungarian comes from the word eyebrow etc. - symbolic importance comes from: structural importance (e.g. the mayor Timber) - Cultical tradition (the fire place is the centre of the house) - or both (the main supporting column, which stood at the middle of the house was called the tree of the Blessed Virgin ) Only the symbolic structures and details are painted, or ornamented - the attic (triangle sharped, head of the house-holy trinity) - fire place (the centre) - the mayor timber (the most important supporting structure) - the gate (border between in and out) - furniture (mainly the hope-chest of the bride) - textiles We have to pay special attention to the churches as they have a very significant symbolic meaning which is expressed both in their location in the settlement and in their painting and decoration. 2.2 Symbolic use of colours The Hungarian tradition makes difference between the meanings of the different colours which comes from pagan folklore. The special character of HUNGARIAN FOLK ART is the use of CONTRAST as the main visual effect. This contrast represents the DUALITY and BALANCE of the energy that makes the world function. In the SPIRITUAL TRADITION the MEANING of each colour is AMBIVALENT (except for GREEN). The difference between SATURATION and BRIGHTNESS values can bring opposing meaning. The decoration consists of plants, their colouring is NATURALISTIC, but in consequence of using BRIGHT COLOURS WITHOUT NUANCES it gets symbolic significance. The FORMS and COLOURS create a kind of ASYMMETRIC order. COLOUR CONTRAST has 3 TYPES: A. DARK - LIGHT (costume): old - young, sorrow - joy B. DULL - BRIGHT (textile): poor - noble, common - celebrating C. RED - GREEN (formerly BLUE): the most frequently used contrast in HUNGARIAN FOLK ART: fire - water, sky - earth, spirit - body, active - passive WHITE ETYMOLOGY: WHITE (FEHÉR) - hun. CLEAR, BRIGHT. NATURAL BASIS: WATER PURIFICATION, LIGHT - POWER, the sources of life. AMBIVALENCE - BLUISH WHITE - veil, velvet, lawn NOBLE, RICH; YELLOWISH WHITE - linen, wool - COMMON, POOR
9 5 3. Findings CONTRAST: WHITE - BLACK, good - bad, woman - man, light - dark, East - West, life - death. ASSOCIATION of ideas: lily, horse, bird, swan, pigeon, shawl COMPLEX SYMBOLS - in folk literature (tales and songs): white HORSE, white TENT, white HAT POWER, DOMINANCE; white VEIL, white SKIRT, white SHAWL, white SWAN INNOCENCE; white ROSE, white LILY, white LAMB BRIDE; white BIRD, white SHEET SOUL, DEATH, MOURNING; "WHITE PERSONS" - in old Hungarian WOMEN. PRACTICAL USE: white colour protects from the EVIL. ARCHITECTURE: whitening is common in the Hungarian villages since 18th century both on living houses and churches. COSTUME: white dress is used for mourning (wedding function is an urban habit.) Natural white material (linen, wool) is the basis of everyday wear. TEXTILE: sheets, shawls, towels embroidered in white are properties belonging to dead persons (e.g. used for covering the mirror in the house of mourning). RED ETYMOLOGY: RED (VÖRÖS) - hun. BLOOD - VÉR - 'vörös'. NATURAL BASIS: BLOOD, FIRE, SUN. AMBIVALENCE: PIROS - hun. bright RED (life, love, youth) VÖRÖS - hun. DARK red (murder, violence, sacrifice). ASSOCIATION of ideas: heart, blood, tulip, rose, fire, dragon, salamandra, cock, egg COMPLEX SYMBOLS: red FACE, red ROSE, red VEIL, SKIRT, BOOTS, SHOES, red APPLE LOVE; red DAWN BIRTH, BEGINNING; red ripe WHEAT, red MAIZE- STALK MATURITY for MARRIAGE; red HORSE, red FISH PASSION of LOVE; red WHITSUN - HOLY SPIRIT - rebirth. TONES: PURPLE, CHERRY-red, PEPPER-red DIGNITARY (red velvet hat), FLAMING red BURSTING with HEALTH, LONGING for LOVE; red BLOOD, red SKY, red VEIL ILL OMEN; bloody flower, red (vörös) STRING, PEARL VIOLENT DEATH PRACTICAL USE - red colour is traditionally considered to have PROTECTIVE POWER - see the habit of painting the body with blood, later red paint - RED COSTUME - it has importance at significant events of human life (woman life) -- birth - PROTECTION -- young girls - LIVELINESS, HEALTH -- marriageable girls, bride - MATURITY for LOVE and MARRIAGE -- young wife - FERTILITY, PROTECTION -- aged women are changing red dress step by step for brown one. -- red mourning dress was traditional in TRANSSYLVANIA - - DECORATIVE ART: red egg - present at EASTER - symbol of RESURRECTION -- textile, furniture - together with GREEN, RED is the most frequently used colour, representing flowers. GREEN ETYMOLOGY: GREEN (ZÖLD) (earlier meant yellow too) - COLOUR of new grown GRASS. NATURAL BASIS: VEGETATION - SPRING, REBIRTH, HOPE. AMBIVALENCE: the only colour which has no ambivalent meaning in Hungarian folk art. The two different tones (dark - light) are used only for decoration.
10 6 3. Findings CONTRAST: RED and GREEN duality of LIFE ASSOCIATION of ideas: branch, leaf, hill, earth, tree, gate, window COMPLEX SYMBOLS: green RIBBON young girl, single woman, FAITH; green BRANCH, LEAF, green HILL, green LAWN shows the rest of Pagan Cultical actions: marriage-feast, spring-feast, fertility-magic feast; green FOREST, green FIELD FREEDOM, FAITHFUL LOVE; dying tree comes into leaf HOPE, MIRACLE, green silk DRESS, PILLOW, QUILT, TABLE-CLOTH LUXURY (green silk, velvet was popular in noble houses in the 17 th -18 th centuries) PRACTICAL USE: ARCHITECTURE: green is the traditional colour of doors and windows. POTTERY: green glaze is usual both on dishes and stove-tiles. DECORATIVE ART: the contrast colour for red, representing vegetation. BLUE ETYMOLOGY : BLUE (KÉK) - (Turkish: kök) - NEW GRASS. Until 1382 it had the same meaning as green. Instead of having an own name the colour blue was mentioned by euphemism: COLOUR of SKY - it was SACRED. NATURAL BASIS: SKY - ETERNITY. AMBIVALENCE: LIGHT BLUE - clear sky: cosmic infinity, Heaven - holiness, innocence, purity = white. DARK BLUE - stormy sky: grief, mourning, death (-violet, black). COMPLEX SYMBOLS: (in folk-literature - tales and songs) blue HILL - DISTANCE, blue SKY TRANQUILITY; blue FORGET-ME-NOT, VIOLET FAITH, SLOE-EYED, FLEX-FLOWER-EYED, CORNFLOWER-EYED GIRL idealistic type of faithful woman. PRACTICAL USE: ARCHITECTURE: the traditional 3 colours of ornamental painting on wooden structures are red, white, blue. Blue-painted facade is characteristic at certain regions of Hungary (Transsylvania, Upper-Hungary). Other structures painted in blue: doors, windowframes, ceiling (especially in churches) as the idea of Heaven, niche for holy sculpture on the main facade of the houses. COSTUME: at catholic regions young people can wear light-blue dress. Children are mourned in light blue, their tombstones are painted in blue. DECORATIVE ART: traditional way of colouring on embroidered or wood-carved pieces is using 2 colours: BLUE and RED. YELLOW ETYMOLOGY: YELLOW (SÁRGA) - LIGHT Turkish sar - white. - the meaning of yellow was mixed with the meaning of green. NATURAL BASIS: SUN - FIRE, GOLD. AMBIVALENCE: golden yellow RIPENESS, MATURITY. pale yellow FADE, SICK, DEAD. ASSOCIATION of ideas: corn, seed, ear, bird, sun, gold. COMPLEX SYMBOLS: (in folk literature - tales and songs) yellow FOAL, yellow BIRD, yellow SNAKE LOVE symbols; yellow ROSE SENSUALITY; yellow WHEAT, yellow MAIZE MATURITY for LOVE; yellow SKIRT, VEIL, BOOTS (as opposed to RED ones), yellow HOUSE FALSE LOVE; yellow BIRD, yellow FACE, yellow LEAF DEATH (Middle-Asian idea); yellow FORT, yellow TOWN-HALL symbol of
11 7 3. Findings OPPRESSION - yellow was the favourite colour of the HABSBURG dynasty in the 18 th cent.; BRIGHT YELLOW = GOLD; golden BRANCH, golden APPLE lad, maid; golden LAMB, golden STAR mythological symbols. FAKE YELLOW = BRASS; brass SPUR, brass AXE OUTLAW. PRACTICAL USE: ARCHITECTURE: yellow facade in villages shows German influence. COSTUME: yellow mourning dress was used in certain regions of Hungary. DECORATIVE ART (furniture, textile): being the most intensive colour, yellow is used for creating dots or thin lines. SHEPHERD S ART - wooden and bone-work made yellow by wax. BROWN NATURAL BASIS: brown hair, face, autumn - old age, wood, soil. BROWN has no symbolic meaning, but it is frequently used as an epithet. ASSOCIATIONS: BROWN GIRL, BROWN MAN HEALTH, BEAUTY, STRENGTH (Hungarian character is considered to be brown (as opposed to Germanic blonde); BROWN DRESS OLD AGE, SIMPLICITY; BROWN CLOUD, BROWN DEATH MISFORTUNE. PRACTICAL USE: ARCHITECTURE: wood was the traditional building material for columns, gables, gates, verandas. Wooden structures were decorated by carving and 3 colour (red, blue, white) ornamental painting (geometric). In the last century multi-coloured painting came into fashion, but the natural brown colour of wood continued to be the dominant colour in village architecture together with WHITE. FURNITURE: the traditional material of peasant furniture was walnut. In the 19th century the furniture became colour-painted and symbolized the financial status of the peasant's household. COSTUME: brown dress must be worn by old women instead of RED one. The brownish tone of linen and wool is not popular among the young people, they have a special method for "blueing" the white underwear. DECORATIVE ART: wooden pieces are generally painted. BLACK ETYMOLOGY: BLACK (FEKETE) - DIRTY, SOOTY. NATURAL BASIS: DARKNESS, NIGHT LIGHT (evil - good, carnal pleasures - spirit, ignorance - knowledge, dirty - clean). AMBIVALENCE: bright black dress became FORMAL. ASSOCIATION of ideas: night, moon, soil, witch, devil, cave, bull, raven, cat, snake. COMPLEX SYMBOLS: (in folk literature - tales and songs): black BIRD, RAVEN DEVIL (Christian symbol); black BULL, BISON, OX BLACK MAGIC; black CLOUD, SKY, FIELD, HANGMAN TRAGEDY, EXECUTION; black SOIL WOMB of the EARTH, the BEGINNING and the END; black HORSE MAGIC POWER; black VELVET, SILK RANK, HIGH POSITION; black FRUIT (cherry, sloe) RIPENESS, MATURITY; black and yellow = HABSBURG colours OPPRESSION. PRACTICAL USE: COSTUME: old people generally wear black costumes. Since the beginning of 20th century black is the usual colour of mourning. Wooden tomb-signs are sometimes painted in black. Black velvet or silk dress is used for celebrations even by young people. DECORATIVE ART: Black embroidery is a kind of picture writing. Single colour
12 8 3. Findings embroidery (blue, red, white, black) is characteristic to the old, traditional pieces. On multicoloured textile black is used for making contour-lines. Historically we have three types of house decoration Archaic geometrical, ornamental Characteristic points: Metaphorical meaning: use of natural building material (wood, mud, can, thatch) simple decoration as a result of building technology, geometrical decorative elements painted in basic colours (red, blue, white) the remains of colour-symbolism public spirit of community serving a common goal. Classical folk art Characteristic points: Metaphorical meaning: use of pre-fabricated building material (brick, tiles) borrowing of motifs from historic styles (plaster ornamentation, woodcarving, painting), multicoloured interiors (sometimes exteriors e.g. Kalocsa), naturalistic decorative elements richness of the peasants as a social class. Urban influence: Characteristic points: pre-fabricated ornamental decoration, colour-painted facades intention to be individual Metaphorical meaning: individualism. The character of the colours used the most frequently in the Hungarian folklore and folk architecture (compared to COLOROID colour system): The colours are situated close to the border of the colour space of the COLOROID. The hue values create a triadic harmony. The lightness values are under the line of the colour-circle which contains the colours with maximum saturation values, and are generally situated in the lower half. The saturation values approach the maximum of the lightness level. This means that the Hungarian folk-art uses medium dark, saturated colours. The main visual effect of the compositions is colour-contrast between red and blue and green. The hierarchy of the different colours is created upon the definite saturation and lightness contrast which arranges the different tones even in case of multicoloured composition. The most preferred colour is bright and dark red and light indigo blue. All the colours belong to the warm half of the colour circle. Considering the psychological effect of colours the above discussed ones show a dynamic, resourceful personality, full of vitality and optimism with affection to go to the extremes.
13 9 3. Findings The different districts of Hungary could have various character, upon the different social, economical, and historical conditions but the characteristic points are the same - the architectonical approach in decoration, - the use of contrastive colours on the facade-element, - the traditional facade colours (white, blue) are replaced by urbanized ones (dark reddish, yellowish) as the result of eclecticism, - the renaissance of whitened walls among the intellectuals. The Hungarian way of house decoration is a mixture of eastern and western elements: The architectonical way of thinking (building structure, the compositional structure of the decoration) is spiced with eastern fantasy in using motifs and colours. The eastern heritage have been built in the western structure like in the case of the Hungarian language. The language of the Hungarian folk-art and decoration is so unique as the Hungarian language itself. 3.b The importance of findings The Hungarian folklore is very colourful and the colours reflect 1. symbolic meaning 2. special preference These effects can be measured by the COLOROID colour system. With using graphicons they can be compared to the colours of other regions. The datas collected by ethnographers can be punctualized and arranged, the colours that have ephemer character can be documented. This work have not been done yet and if it continues can be a good help to the Museum of Ethnography. The systematization of the coloured decorations in the village architecture provides new information about the topic and fits well with the ethnosemiotic approach of the new generation of the ethnographers. The photo collection I have at the present time shows the wide scale of village houses both in space and time. It could serve as a base of a representative documentation completed with the data I have collected. Using the new multi-media possibilities I plan to make a CD-ROM which could give audiovisual information about the Hungarian folklore with a program based on colours. This could give a good opportunity to represent the values and wealth of the Hungarian folk art even to foreigners in an artistic way.
14 10 4. Difficulties 4. Difficulties The difficulties I encountered form two groups. The archived material is not systemized on topics - The collection of Drawings have a special catalogue, but it contains pieces about the same territory under totally different numbers, so I had to examine more than 500 index-cards. - The collection of Photos keeps the material in chronological order, so first I had to go through the card-index of architecture and interiors, and than look for the necessary numbers in the chronological catalogue. - The photo collection of the Szentendre Open-Air Museum has not got any index at all, so I could not do research work there. The coloroid colour atlas does not contains so bright colours that I have found on the objects (because of press problems.) That was the reason I have chosen the NCS colour-cards for measurement and transformed the data to COLOROID by using a table. The colour-tones can change rapidly and reproduction also changes the original colour. But the visual effect of the different tones can be the same for two reasons: 1. During reproduction all of the colours change to the same degree. 2. A scale of different tones can result the same visual effect and the dimension of the changes is smaller than the domain of the constant effect. II. I had personal difficulties in preparing the final report in time because I had a baby born in march and I had spent 3 weeks in hospital before.
15 11 5. Intended Use of the Findings 5. Intended Use of the Findings 1. I will finish my Ph.D. dissertation by November Same parts I have already prepared (see para 9b). 2. I take part in the work of the Department of Colour Dynamics Association for Building Sciences (ÉTE, Színdinamikai Szakosztály). That means teaching and educational work for specialists and the general public. 3. I continue teaching Art-History on the base of the research results. 4. I plan to digitalize the photo collection we have and to complete it with the written data of any research work. I suppose it could show a detailed and overall discussion of the topic in a very representative form. I have the necessary help in using computer-equipment. With this background (Technical University of photo-laboratory) I could make a representative CD-ROM for public use. For financial support I have applied for the OSI policy fellowship The Open Society Institute Budapest was so kind to post the call for application and application form presumably in aware of my work supported by RSS. 5. The next International Colour Conference will be held in Rochester, New York in 2001 Summer. I plan to present the outcome of para 4 at the congress.
16 12 6. Future Developments 6. Future Developments 1. In para 10.b; chapter 4 I show the method of discussing the data of one special territory: Kalocsa. This survey can be continued on various territories. As the result of this work we can get the colour-map of the county which can be digitalized easily. This can serve as a base for comparative studies. 2. The colour preference data can be discussed from psychological point of view. The Lüsher-Profile (by Prof. Max Lüsher) uses colour-preference data for getting information about personality. Adopting this method to national preference-values one can get information of psychological character of the different ethnic or social groups. 3. Continuing research work on the field of colour-symbolism one can establish a more exact statements about the traditional use of colours and this could help to understand the language of folk art.
17 13 7. General Remarks 7. General Remarks 1. It was very useful to get the RSS Network chronicle. A list of participants with mailing addresses would help in making connection with colleagues working on the same field. The summaries of the projects can arouse the colleagues interest. Will it be possible to make the whole projects available for the specialist of the topic? This system could serve well for the international cooperation in comparative studies. 2. The RSS committee would assess the Interim Report with stating some remarks on the work that has been carried out already. This could give help for working in the second stage of the project.
18 14 8. Specific Activities 8. Specific Activities 8.A Field Research, Archival Studies Collection of Drawings, Ethnographical Museum Jan May. I studied all coloured drawings of the collection representing village houses or street views. Result: photocopies hand-made copies colour-measurement datas (upon the colour cards of NCS system) Collection of photos, Ethnographical Museum, Sept, Oct. The collection contains black and white photos, but could give information about the decorating system since the beginning of the century. I could see photos from the time before the 2 nd Word War when folklore research was very popular. Village-research project, Institute for the Preservation of Historical Monuments Sept March. The collection contains question forms with written data, photos, and architectural documentation of almost all the villages in Hungary, arranged by districts. I studied the materials of the districts I have visited, or of that I found coloured drawings in the Ethnographical Museum. Viski Károly Museum, Kalocsa; Dec Jan. a) I made studies in the archives of the Museum. Results: written data of the history of the folklore in Kalocsa district a collection of drawings made by the most famous woman-painter in Kalocsa district colour measurement on the above mentioned pieces photos b) The head of the Museum, Mr. Imre Romsics has made a research project on the field of embroidery with special attention to the coloures. He has a collection of threads which are accepted by the women of Kalocsa to use. He was so kind to show me his material, and I could do colour-measurement on these items too. The studies in Kalocsa, together with the documents in the Institutes mentioned in 8.A.1. and 8.A.2. helped me to have total view of the use of colours in a district which has a special folklore. Studies in library Sept March - Library of the Ethnographical Museum - Library of the Institute for the Preservation of Historical - Monuments and sights. List of Bibliography please find in para 10.A 1. Ethnographical Museum, Oslo, Norway Oct. Open-air Ethnographical Museum, Bygdoy, Oslo, Norway Oct. Result: collection of photos and written data of the Norwegian folklore.
19 15 8. Specific Activities 8.B Study trips Travelling in home country 1. Northern region of the lake Balaton, Oct. (5.2.1) * 2. Kalocsa, Dec., Jan., April, Feb. (4.1) 3. Nyíregyháza region, Feb., March (5.2.2) 4. Bakony region (Transdanubia), May (5.2.3) 5. Northern Hungary (Borsod and Zemplén district) May (5.2.4) 6. Zsámbék (Pest district) May (5.2.5) 7. Sárköz region (Transdanubia) May (5.2.6) 8. Ócsa, April (5.2.7) 9. Szentendre-island, April (5.2.8) 10. Jászság, Nov., Jan. (5.2.9) 11. Nógrád district, Feb. (5.2.10) Travelling to abroad 1. Transsylvania, Sóvidék, summer (5.2.11) 2. Oslo, Norway Oct. 8.C Conferences, seminars 1. AIC Colour 97, Kyoto, Japan 8 th Congress of International Colour Association, May By the help of the Hungarian Soros Foundation I could take part in the congress. I presented a paper on the decoration and colour in Hungarian folk architecture at the section of Colour Design. (outcome see in para 9.B) 2. Colour between Art and Science, October , Norway Oslo International Colour Conference, Radisson SAS hotel organized by: the Institute of Colour, NCAC I exhibited a poster with the title: colour in the Hungarian Folk Art (photocopies see in para 9.B) 3. FARB INFO 98 Internationale Farbtagung Farbe in Kunst Architectur Design Wien, Besufspadagogishe Achademie, Grenzacherstrasse 18. A-1100, Wien; 5-7. Nov I took part in a competition of posters for young specialists with the material shown in Oslo. * the para numbers in parentheses refer to the items in para 10.B
20 16 8. Specific Activities 4. Lecture for the members of the Department of Colour Dynamics, Association of Building Science (ÉTE) March. I held a lecture about my expierences in Norway. 5. Seminar about the use of multimedia facilities organized by C3 Studio, Budapest, Országház u July 17 July Participant. 8.D Other activities I passed may Ph.D. exam with distinction on 3 subjects - main subject: history of Hungarian architecture - 2 nd subject: folk architecture - 3 rd subject: colour design (document attached in the appendix of Interim report) I have prepared some chapters of my Ph.D. dissertation (see items in para 9.B).