1 Mítoszok és legendák A magyar csapat július Morvan, Franciaország Négy hölgy és két úriember, mindannyian lelkesek, fiatalok és szépek, ráadásul a színvonalas előadásaikkal és bemutatóikkal igazán magasra tették a mércét a franciáknak, a görögöknek, a litvánoknak és a bolgároknak.
2 A téma A téma a mítoszok és legendák. Minden ország különböző módon mutatta be a saját kis történetét. A görögök színházi előadással, a bolgárok tánccal és énekkel a franciák pedig kis filmekkel. Mi magyarok árnyjátékkal bemutattuk a csodaszarvas legendáját magyar zenével fűszerezve, illetve a Só népmesét. A Só mesének a történetét először kinyomtattuk angolul, bár jó pár szót nem fordítottunk le, hiszen a cél az volt, hogy kitalálják, hogy melyik magyar szó mit jelent és tanuljanak egy kicsit magyarul is. A végeredmény nagyon viccesre sikerült, sok különböző változat született a mesét illetően. Legvégül levetíttettük nekik az eredeti mesét angol felirattal, ami nagy sikert aratott. A program Mi érkeztünk elsőként a szállásra, így a szálláson azt a szobát választottuk, amelyiket csak akartuk, és a vacsoránál egyedül élvezhettük a francia vendégszeretetet, a finom száraz vörös borokat, a különböző sajtokat és a meleg vacsorát, és ezt nem csak az első estén tettük. A bolgárok csak később érkeztek, de szerencsére még aznap, így tudtunk barátkozni velük. A görögök másnap, a litvánok pedig csak harmadik nap érkeztek meg így egy kicsit nehéz volt a teljes csapatszellem kialakítása, de a végére sikerült ezt az akadályt is legyőznünk. A hét nagyon hamar eltelt, mint ahogy minden cserén. Az első nap felfedeztük a kis városkát, ahol a szállásunk volt, persze ezt is vegyes csapatokban játékosan. A cél az volt, hogy derítsük ki milyen legendák vannak Morvanban. A játék során egyértelművé vált, hogy a franciák, franciául beszélnek és csak úgy, na de nekünk szerencsénk volt, mert volt aki tolmácsolt A második napon saját magunknak kellett egy helyi legendát kreálni magunk készített fényképekből, így minden kreativitásra szükségünk volt. Majd meglátogattuk Bibract-ot, ahol túrázgattunk és élveztük a francia természet csodálatos közelségét. A harmadik napon színházi felkészülést tartottunk, színészi bemelegítésekkel, pofonok tanulásával és hasonló finomságokkal, A negyedik napon Auton városába látogattunk el, ahol megcsodálhattuk a katedrálist, és eljött az ideje a vásárlásnak ajándékok, borok, édességek Az ötödik és a hatodik napon folytattuk a színházasdit és a saját legenda gyártását, amiben a boszorkányoktól kezdve, a rocker gonosz kőszobron keresztül az unikornisig minden volt. A legenda azért lett ilyen színes, mert külön csapat gondoskodott a helyszínről, a történetről, a nehézségekről, a jó és a rossz karakterek kialakításáról, és egyik csapat sem tudta, hogy mit tervez a másik csapat, így a végén egy magyar rendező (a csapatunk tagja) segítségével összeállt a történet, melyben mindenki megmutathatta színészi tehetségét.
3 A hetedik napon megtartottuk a végső értékelést a hétről, ahol szinte csak pozitív dolgokat tudtunk mondani a helyszínről, a programokról, a kajákról és a csapatokról, egyetlen egy negatív dolgot tudtunk említeni az pedig az állandó csúszás volt a programoknál, de valahogy mindig sikerült teljesíteni a tervezetteket. Majd kezdetét vette a hét fénypontja, elindultunk Párizsba! Párizsról rengeteget lehetne mesélni, de én csak annyit szeretnék mondani, hogy eső ide vagy oda szeretjük A buszos út oda is, vissza is hosszú volt, a hét rövid, sok bulival és jó társasággal. Rengeteget tanultunk egymástól, egymásról, így remélem megismétlődhet egyszer még ez a francia kiruccanás Myths and Legends Morvan
4 Hungarian mythology Hungarian mythology includes the myths, legends, folk tales, fairy tales and gods of the Hungarians. Many parts of it are thought to be lost, i.e. only some texts remained which can be classified as a myth. However, a significant amount of Hungarian mythology was successfully recovered in the last hundred years. The most important sources are: Folklore, as a lot of mythological persons remained in folk tales, folk songs, legends, also special traditions linked to special dates which are not known elsewhere Medieval chronicles, codexes Writings about Hungarians by non-hungarian authors (mostly before 850) Archeology helped to assemble the religion. Brief mythology The world is divided into three spheres: the first is the Upper World (Felső világ), the home of the gods and spirits; the second is the Middle World (Középső világ) where the world we know is, and finally the Underworld (Alsó világ). In the center of the world, a tall tree is standing: the World Tree / Tree of Life / Life Tree (Világfa/Életfa). Its foliage is the Upper World. The Middle World is located at its trunk and the Underworld is around its roots. In some stories, the tree has fruits: these are the golden apples. Upper World The gods, the spirits and the good souls live in the Upper World. Gods have the same rank, although the most important figure of them is Isten (meaning 'God' in Hungarian). He controls the world, shapes the fate of humans, observes the Middle World from the sky, and sometimes gives warning by lightning (mennykő). Isten created the world with the help of Ördög ("the devil" Evil). Other gods include: Istenanya ('Mother God'), also known as Boldogasszony ('Blessed Lady'; later identified with the Virgin Mary), and Hadúr (Lord of War or Lord of Army). The major celestial bodies, (the Sun and the Moon), are also located in the Upper World. The sky was thought to be a big tent held up by the Tree of Life. There are several holes on it: those are the stars.
5 Middle World The Middle World is shared among humans and many mythological creatures, the latter are often supernatural. There are spirits of the forests and waters, who are ordered to scare humans. They have different names in different places. There are females, for example, the sellő (mermaid), which lives in waters and has a human torso with the tail of a fish. The wind is controlled by an old lady called Szélanya (Wind Mother) or Szélkirály (Wind King). The Sárkány (dragon) is a frightening beast: he is the enemy of many heroes in fairy tales, symbolising the psychical inner struggle of the hero. The lidérc is a ghostly, mysterious creature with several different appearances, its works are always malicious. The manók (elves / goblins) and the törpék (dwarfs) are foxy beings living in woods or under the ground. Óriások (giants) live in the mountains. They have both good and bad qualities. The most favourite creatures are the tündérek (fairies), who are beautiful and young virgins or female creatures. They aid humans, who sometimes can ask three wishes from them. Their opposites are the bábák, who are equated with catty, old witches. (Bába means 'midwife' in Hungarian, and originally they were wise old women, later equated with witches as Christianity became widespread.) Underworld The Underworld is the place of bad souls (this includes evil spirits and the souls of dead people who were cruel and evil in their lives) and the home of Ördög. He is the creator of everything that is bad for humans: for example, the creator of the annoying animals (such as fleas, lice, and flies). Religion One of the theory of the ancient Hungarian religion is that it was a form of Tengriism, a shamanistic religion common among the early Turkic, Uralic and Mongol people, that was influenced by Zoroastrianism from the Persians whom the Magyars had encountered during their westward migration. The shaman role was filled by the táltos. Their souls were thought to be able to travel between the three spheres (révülés). Táltoses were also doctors. They were selected by fate; their slight abnormalities at birth (neonatal teeth, caulbearer, additional fingers, etc.) were believed to be the sign of a divine order. The steps of their introduction: Climbing up on the "shaman ladder/shaman tree" symbolized the World Tree;
6 Drenching the ghosts: drinking the blood of the sacrificed animal. They had the ability to contact spirits by specific rituals and praying. Thus, they interpreted dreams, mediated between humans and spirits, cured and removed curses, and had an ability to find and bring back lost souls. They directed animal sacrifices and guessed the reason of an ancestor's anger. After death, the human soul leaves the body. The body is buried by relatives on the other bank of a river, looking towards east. If the soul had been good, it gets to the Other World (Túlvilág), for eternal peace. If it had been bad, it must suffer in the underworld (Alsó Világ, Alvilág), where Ördög ("the devil") and numerous evil ghosts live. Persons, creatures, gods Boldogasszony (Holy Virgin) - Her name means "Blessed Lady" or "Bountiful Queen". She was the goddess of motherhood and helped women in childbirth. After Hungarians were Christianized with the help of St. Gerard of Csanad, her figure fell out of fervor for that of the Virgin Mary. She is also considered the "Queen (Regina) of Hungary" Csodaszarvas (animal) - A central figure in the legends surrounding the origin of the Hungarian people. The name translates to "Miraculous Deer". According to Hungarian legend, while out hunting, the brothers Hunor and Magor saw a miraculous white stag. They pursued the animal, but it always stayed ahead of them, leading them westward into Levedia, where they married two princesses and founded the Hun and Magyar peoples. Hunor and Magor (people) - Legendary twin patriarchs of the Huns and Magyars (Hungarians), respectively. They were said to be the sons of the Biblical Menrot (Nimrod), or of Japheth according to a slightly different version of the legend. Álmos (person) - Son of Ügyek and Emese. He was a semi-legendary figure born in c. 819 and the ancestor of the house of Árpád. Álmos ruled the Magyars in Levedia and Etelköz. His name means "dreamy" as his birth was foretold in his mother's dream (see the legend of his birth at Emese.) Emese (person) - Wife of Ügyek, mother of Álmos (meaning, "the one from/with the dream"). She was impregnated by a turul bird, which appeared to her in a dream and told her "a river will spring from your womb, which will flow and spread to a new land". The táltos (shaman) explained the dream as saying that she would give birth to a son, who would be the ancestor of a great ruling family in a foreign land.
7 Bába (creature) - Meaning "old woman", she was originally a good fairy who later degraded and became evil. Although she had magical abilities, she was not a witch (boszorkány). She was thought to live in fountains, and if young children went too close to her lair, she lured them in. Boszorkány (witch) - A hostile, harm-doing, supernatural old lady, the witch. She had an ability to transform, fly and curse. A boszorkány corrupted the animals, for example, soured the milk of the cows. For humans, she brought an abrupt illness. They "operated" in the night, or in the nightfall. Bubus (spirit) - A small being that lives in caves. See Mumus. Dula (person) - Dula's name appears in the Legend of the Csodaszarvas. He is said to be a prince of the Alans. In fact, he probably was a kind of chief of the Volga Bulgarians. Fene (spirit) - The demon of illness. Today, a common saying still uses its name: "A fene egye meg!", which literally means "Let it be eaten by the fene!", and is uttered when something does not occur as one wishes. "Fene" is also considered the place where demons roam, i.e. the popular Hungarian curse "menj a fenébe!" is equivalent to the English "go to hell!". Garabonciás (person) - A male figure who learned magic, unlike the táltos, who had the ability by birth. He is able to create storms. Some alumni were thought to possess these abilities as late as the 19th century. Guta (spirit) - A fearsome Hungarian demon who beats his victims to death, often associated with strokes, heart attacks, or sudden paralysis. Hadúr (god) - Short for Hadak Ura, meaning "Lord of War" or "Lord of Army" and was the war god in the religion of the early Hungarians (Magyars). He was the third son of Arany Atyácska (Golden Father) and Hajnal Anyácska (Dawn Mother) and was also the metalsmith of the gods. He wore armor and weapons made of pure copper, which is his sacred metal, and it was said that he forged the Sword of God (Isten kardja) which was discovered by Attila the Hun and secured his rule. It was customary for the Magyars to sacrifice white stallions to him before a battle. Napkirály (god) - Meaning "King of the Sun", he is the Hungarian sun god and is the oldest son of Arany Atyácska (Golden Father) and Hajnal Anyácska (Dawn Mother), brother of Hadúr and Szélkirály. He rides his silver-haired horse fron East to West every day, seeing everything below him.
8 Szélkirály (god) - Meaning "King of the Wind", he is the Hungarian god of wind and rain, and is the second son of Arany Atyácska (Golden Father) and Hajnal Anyácska (Dawn Mother), brother of Hadúr and Napkirály. His armor and weapons are made of pure silver, his sacred metal. Szépasszony (spirit) - Meaning "Fair Lady", she is a female demon with long hair and a white dress. She appears and dances in storms and hail, and seduces young men. Turul (animal) The great bird resembling to a falcon that was sent forth by Isten to guide the creation and destiny of the Magyar people. The first kings after St Stephen I. were the hereditiary of Turul ("Turul nemzetség") Vadleány (creature) - Meaning "Forest Girl", she is an elusive forest sprite who seduces shepherds, saps their strength and makes the forest rustle. She is usually nude and her long hair reaches the ground. She can sometimes be lured and caught with one boot (she tries, to put two of her feet to one boot). Griff (animal) - Also known as griffin in Western Europe, but without special features. In Hungarian mythology, it is similar to turul. Featuring in some fairy tales (like Fehérlófia, The son of the white horse), it is a cruel, greedy bird eating humans, but its the only way to get back from Under World to Middle World. Sárkány (dragon) - Appearing in almost all folk tales, a creature not similar to Chinese dragon or dragon from West Europe. He is always man-shaped, can ride a horse, and has usually 7 heads, sometimes 3, 12 or 21 (relating to numbers in astronomy). Dragons usually symbolised human behaviour or characteristic, i.e. when the hero was fighting with him, he was fighting to overcome his own bad behaviour, habit or characteristic. Remnants in folkore Comparative methods can reveal, that some motifs of folktales, some fragments of songs or rhymes of folk customs preserved fragments of the old belief system. Some records narrate us about shaman-like figures directly. Shamanistic remnants in Hungarian folklore was researched among others by Diószegi Vilmos, based on ethnographic records in Hungary and comparative works with various shamanisms of some Siberian peoples. Hoppál continued his work of studying Hungarian shamanistic belief remnants, comparing shamanistic beliefs of Uralic language relatives of Hungarians with those of several non-uralic Siberian peoples as well.
9 Hungarian Folk Tale Once, an old király had three beautiful királylány. The király wished to give his at in marriage before he died, only he couldn't decide to which of his three királylány he would give the most beautiful of his three countries. He thought to himself that he would give the most beautiful country to the one who loved him the most. So he asked them as well mennyire szeretik. The eldest királylány said that she loved him mint a galamb a tiszta búzát. The middle daughter said that she loved him like szellőt meleg nyári napon. The youngest királylány said that she loved him like az emberek a sót. "Like sót!" Shouted the király, obviously idegesen by his youngest királylány response. He called her hálátlan and asked her if this is why he had brought her up and loved her. He told the youngest királylány to leave his house. The youngest királylány explained in vain how az emberek szeretik a sót. She begged him to understand but he sent her away. A királylány szomorúan elsétált, amíg egy nagy és sötét erdőbe nem ért. She found a large, odvas fát és belebújt. She picked strawberries, nuts and raspberries az erdőben and she lived off of these. Once a szomszéd királyság hercege vadászni ment az erdőbe and when he was chasing some wild game he saw the young királylány for a brief moment. But she had seen him as well and elbújt a fában. A herceg odament a fához and shouted, "Ki van ott?" The young királylány didn't even say a word. The herceg asked who was there and for the person to speak. The herceg told the person to speak or lelövi. Then the királylány came out from hiding and appeared before the herceg. He liked the királylány. The királylány cried bitterly. The herceg hugged her in his arms and took her home to his own kastélyába. Then, there was a large esküvő. Afterwards, they lived like two love birds. Time passed and later the young herceg asked the királylány why her father had sent her
10 away. She said that she had told her father that she loved him ahogy az emberek szeretik a sót. The young herceg thought of a great idea and he sent a letter to the elderly király and told him to come and be a guest at his palace. The elderly király came the next day in his golden carriage. The young herceg immediately led the király to the kastélya legszebb szobájába and then he sat him at the dinning table. They brought in the soup, but nem volt benne só. The meat had no taste to it. The many different kinds of food came in vain because the király remained hungry. The király stayed quiet for a time but then he spoke up and asked the young herceg: miért főz só nélkül a szakács. The herceg said that he had heard that the elderly király nem szereti a sót. The király asked who he had heard this from. The herceg said he heard it from the királylány who he had sent away. The királylány was already there when the young herceg said this. The király suddenly cried out loud. He and his királylány hugged each other's neck. The elderly király then gave his youngest királylány his most beautiful country. And they lived happily ever after, until they died.
11 Miraculous Deer
12 Hungarian Motives